Background: Afghanistan

- Nadir Shah is assassinated, and the Afghans rise once again.
- Ahmad Shah Abdali retakes Kandahar and modern Afghanistan is born.

1747-1773: Ahmad Shah Abdali rules.

- Rule of Timur Shah;
- Capital transferred from Kandahar to Kabul;

1793-1801: Rule of Zaman Shah;

1801-1803: Rule of Mahmood;

1803-1809: Rule of Shah Shujah;

1809-1818: Mahmood returns to the throne.

1819-1826: Sons of Timur Shah struggle for the throne: Civil War;

1826: Dost Mohammad Khan takes Kabul.

1832-1833: Persia moves into Khurasan and threatens Herat.

1834: Peshawar lost to the Sikhs.

- Dost Mohammad Khan is proclaimed as Amir al-mu' minin (commander of the faithful).
- The British invade Afghanistan.

- First Anglo-Afghan War;
- After some resistance, Amir Dost Mohammad Khan surrenders to the British and is deported to India.
- Shah Shuja is installed as a "puppet king" by the British. (1839-1842)

April 1842: Shah Shuja killed by Afghans.

1843: Afghanistan defeats the British and regains independence.

1843-1863: Dost Mohammad Khan comes back and rules.