Background: Afghanistan

- US ambassador killed
- Taraki is killed and Hafizullah Amin takes the Presidency.
- Amin is executed, and he is replaced with Babrak Karmal.
- Soviet Union (Russia) invades in December.

1980: Dr. Najibullah returns from USSR to run the secret police.

1984: UN investigates reported human rights violations.

1986: Babrak Karmal is replaced by Dr. Najibullah.

1987: Najibullah proposes ceasefire, but the Mujahideen refuse to deal with a "puppet government".

1988: Peace accords signed in Geneva.

February 15 - Total withdrawal by the Soviet Union.
- Mujahideen continue to fight against Najibullah's regime.
May - Afghan guerrillas elect Sibhhatullah Mojadidi as head of their government-in-exile.

April 15 - The Mujahideen liberates Afghanistan. UN protects Najibullah.
- The Mujahideen form an Islamic State, Islamic Jihad Council, elections.
- Iranian and Pakistani interference increases.
- Professor Burhannudin Rabbani is elected President.

- The Taliban is born and advance against the Rabbani government.
- Dostum and Hekmatyar reduce Kabul to rubble clashing with government.

June - Gulbuddin Hekmatyar signs peace pact and becomes prime minister.
September 27 - Taliban militia force President Rabbani out of Kabul.
- After the capture of Kabul, the Taliban execute Najibullah.
- Oppression of women by the Taliban.
- Pakistan accused of aiding the Taliban.

Mass graves of Taliban soldiers containing between 1,500 and 2,000 bodies are found. The men were believed to have been captured in May by General Abdul Malik during the Taliban's brief takeover of Mazar-i-Sharif.